SSD Seminar 4 Listening Effectively & Taking Noteworthy Notes


Good afternoon. We’re so grateful that you’re
here today, and for those who will be watching on
video, I’m Virginia Grubaugh from Services for
Students with Disabilities. I’m an academic coach
and disability specialist, and we have a
very special treat. We have Geri Markel, Geraldine
Markel, with us today. Geraldine has, is an
educational psychologist and specialist working
with individuals with all disabilities, and
working on success strategies. And so we’re just,
we’re so delighted. I will let her share more of
her, of her accomplishments, but without further
ado, Geri thank you so much for
being with us. Thank you. Thank you Virginia. Well it’s a pleasure
to be here. I’m Geri Markel. I’m an educational psychologist, principal of Managing Your
Mind coaching and seminars, and I function as an
academic coach and my focus is on learning and performance. And in this seminar series,
we’re looking at a number of study skills and
today we’re focusing on listening
and note taking. Like reading
and test taking, these study skills are
frequently neglected in terms of direct teaching, of having
strategies and a system, and really hooking
up one component of the educational situation to
the next, which is test taking and improvement in grades. So today, we’re talking
about effective listening and noteworthy
note taking. And we want to really think
about what it is you want to get out of a lecture, because when
you have good listening skills, you set the stage for enhanced
learning within the lecture. And so the more you
learn in the lecture, the better will be your memory
and the easier it is then to review and use
the information later for test taking, for paper
writing, or for participating. And we want to think of being
in a lecture and listening as having a peak
performance, that is, you understand your skills. Are you a great listener? Are you better with
visual details? Do you get fidgety? Are you able to concentrate? What are the components
within your study self that make you able
to listen better and learn better
within a lecture? The next kind of
component you want to think of is what is the task? The task is learning. The task is not just
listening or taking notes, but the task is what am I
learning in that lecture, and when you define
that in terms of I need some
detailed information for multiple choice tests. I need big ideas
about essay questions. I need integration because I
have to write a 15-page paper. I need to be conversant with
the facts and the main ideas, because I’m making a
presentation or doing a project. So once you have a goal and you
understand what the task is, the end task, you can
then decide strategies to help you learn
more effectively. And the last component of
a high performance system is when you decide what setting
enables your listening. So you may know
that you are best and can pay best instruction,
attention when you’re sitting in the front seat, or you
may identify times during which you should
look at your lecture, review the lecture notes, but
you’re doing it in a coffee shop and for organic chemistry
that’s too busy a place, you really need a cubicle. Whereas if you’re dealing with
your strengths, you might not be so bothered
with the setting. So we want to look for a
peak performance in listening, note taking, and then
applying that information. We also want to look
at what’s some aids are to facilitate note
taking and review, and what a number
of strategies are. We frequently think or don’t
think about listening as a way of communicating
within our social scene as it relates to academics. So how well are we listening
and interacting when we’re at office hours or when we’re
having casual conversations with peers about a topic? What’s the study group like, and then more specifically
in lecture? And so listening
comprises a huge amount, maybe 40% of the
amount of learning that we do through listening. The other major aspect
of communication and learning has
to do with speaking. So many students benefit from
talking about the content for identifying the main
idea, for having a framework within their perceptual view
that I have to do a main idea, I have to do a further
explanation, I have to do a fact, I
have to have an example. And once they have
this framework, when they’re speaking
they become more organized and they’re able to
absorb the content. So talking about the main ideas
of a lecture and then filtering down to what’s some
specific details are and how examples are used
throughout is one way of enhancing the amount that
you get out of a lecture. So having a discussion
group right after the lecture
would be very useful. If we think about how much
learning we actually do between reading and writing, we
see that that’s less effective in terms of how much we learn
when we’re doing these functions than listening or speaking. And what we want
to think about is how can we gain
better control? How can we become
more confident, because once we become more
confident we end up being able to have less stress and having
better attention and memory? One of the things
that’s useful to do is to identify any patterns
that you have. So it may be that you say I’m
a great listener, but it may be that other people are
having some habits, maybe more in one
course than another, where they are not effective
listeners, and it may be that you can attend really
well at the beginning and then your attention
sort of wonders as you get into the lecture. It may be that you need
some time to warm up, maybe you’re doodling,
maybe you need to come to class a little early just
to relax, get on target, so you want to look at
what is your pattern. Is your attention and focus
for with you know little, little bits, so you’re
only really attending for ten minutes at a time. Whatever it is, you need
to work with that pattern and you need to understand. Another thing that helps
memory and understanding is to preview the material. So many people are
just thinking, I’ve got to get
the lecture, uhhh. They don’t do anything
prior to the lecture. Well if you are a novice in
a particular content area, you need a little heads
up about the vocabulary, the main ideas, some
of the examples. And so if you list
that I never preview or survey the material
prior to the lecture, you’re going in maybe
with one ear covered. And so you want to expand even,
you want to expand the amount of time you spend
preparing for a lecture. If you do zero now, you might
start with just 10 or 20 minutes and just be able to
survey the material. So using a list, a
checklist, helps us identify where we could ratchet up. Frequently, students do not have
much control over the lecture. They don’t choose the room. They don’t, they
are not responsible for the lecturer’s style,
the, how rapid the speech is, how much gesturing
or walking around, how many times the
person summarizes, how many slides there are,
how detailed the slides are, how quickly the slides go. So students don’t have a lot
of control over those factors. But they do have more
control about the things that they do have
control over. So whether they preview
before is under their control. Whether they are ready to
listen and have some questions to answer, that’s
within their control. Whether they go to office hours if they don’t understand
something, that’s within their control. So students need to think
after looking at a self check, what types of things are under
their control, which things can, you know be improved upon, perhaps with a specific
strategy, and when do I need to buddy up with somebody, maybe
using somebody else’s notes or working with
the GSI or instructor. In our social situations,
we really want to think about how well we’re
communicating in order to define what we have to do,
how we have to do it, when it’s, when it’s due, nuances
about how grading is set up. So you know that it,
within a social context, perhaps with peers or
at networking gathering, there are some people
who just sort of look like they’re
ignoring you. You know their eyes
are all over and they don’t seem
to be listening. It’s very insulting. And other times they’re
making a good pretense. They’re nodding and
going uh-huh, yeah, yeah. But they’re still
not totally engaged. And then there are others
who seem to tone in or hone in when they hear a
particular word or phrase, they know it’s of
interest to them, and then there’s the really
intentional active listener. And you want to be sometimes the
selective listener in a lecture, because there may be points
that you really understand, and if your attention goes in
and out, when they’re dealing with the points you understand, perhaps you’re taking
a little break. And then selectively you hear
about a definition, a concept, an illustration, and that’s the
time where you really focus in. So whether you’re in office
hours, a networking meeting, a group study, you
want to be thinking of who are good listeners so
that you can have an opportunity to talk through the material,
whether you’re a good listener, and you’re going to set up the
conditions for a study group or just a peer
to peer interaction so that you have the best
conditions for studying. And so we’re talking
about the direct benefits of enhanced listening
and note taking. If you’re on the cusp of a B+
and you’re looking for an A-, or if you’re at the D- level
and looking for that solid D, you might look at the lecture
notes and the note taking as one way to pick up the extra
couple of points you don’t have. And so one benefit in
addition to less stress and more effective
learning is a direct benefit from using good lecture notes
to the grades and perhaps to papers, because frequently if
you will go back to the syllabus and the notes, and look at
the emphasis that is placed on particular topics, the kinds
of papers you should write or the types of projects or presentations you might
select will become very clear and you’ll understand
really what to do. You take that, talk to
the GSI or the professor, and then you have a clearer
picture of what to do and that then saves you
time, saves you energy, makes your reading
easier to get through, makes your note taking
easier to get to, and the final project
is less stressful, and you have some time
to work on other projects. How many times have you or your
friends stumbled into lecture after being up to 2
or 3 in the morning? You haven’t eaten
breakfast, you don’t know where your other
notes are, maybe you don’t even have a
pencil, the slides were up, but you didn’t look
at them, so you’re not in a particularly
good place to process information
let alone listen to it. And so the goal is to
reduce all the challenges. Get some sleep, have some
breakfast, maybe some protein, at least get some
walking in, some exercise, so you’re in peak physical
condition to listen. You know when you take a test, you get direct, concrete,
visible feedback about the type of question that you
answered incorrectly. But when you’re listening, you
could go for months listening in an inaccurate, incomplete
way, not paying attention to your notes, and then when
it’s time to learn these notes, you really don’t have any
feedback about how good or bad the notes were ongoing. And so you’re stuck with
material that you can’t use and probably you’re trying
to use the information and you get information
overload just before a test. So again, if you’re rushed, if
you’re ill, you’ve really got to see if you want to
use somebody else’s notes because your energy level,
you just may be not up to par. And so students may think
of putting off a test if they’ve been ill, but they
might not think of brushing up on their listening
skills if they’ve been ill. So sleeping through a
lecture, maybe you get points for being there, but you
don’t get any real learning. Another place of
self awareness is to take two different
courses, look at the notes that you’re taking from that
course, from each course, and decide our
my notes accurate? Are they complete? Are they relevant to
what’s going in my test taking or the papers or the reading
I have to do, and what can I do to ratchet each
of those courses up? One thing that you can do to see how accurate
your note taking is is and how good you’re memory
is, is to take notes, maybe wait 3 hours, 5 hours,
10 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, but within a brief
amount of time, take a blank piece
of paper and write down everything you remember
from that lecture. Use bullet points, use diagrams,
graphs, whatever you can do to shortcut the, the process. See how much you remember. Now the data is for listening,
is that if you listen to a lecture and people ask
you about it a time after, you probably only
remember 50%. And then if we delay
and delay, you only remember
50% of the 50%. So you want to review as soon
as you can the information that would be covered
in a lecture. Once you say to yourself or
write down the main ideas and some facts and details
and examples, you then take that paper and compare it to your lecture notes
or the slides. What that does is it raises your
curiosity, how well did I do, it focuses your attention
on what you know and what you don’t know,
and it becomes clear to you how much you remember
or don’t remember. And you begin to self
motivate if you’re interested in that extra half point or
those extra facts and examples that you give on an essay test,
that you become more aware and you become more focused on
really reviewing, previewing and reviewing your notes. So how much do you actually
learn during lecture? Here you are perhaps you’re in
lecture two, three hours a week. If that time is wasted,
you’re tired, you’re stressed, and you don’t know what
you’re talking about. If that time is used for
you to take in learning, to process ideas, and to set
the stage for further reading and study, then you’re up a leg. So even if you ratchet
up your listening for only half the lecture,
you’re probably going to get some learning done. Now when people,
students particularly, specifically are able to use
the lecture notes to learn or the slides to learn, that
becomes an important element and a stepping stone to
doing homework assignments and problem sets. Very frequently with
the students I work with, they’re in lecture, they
feel they’re learning, and then whether they’ve
read or not, they go directly to those long tedious but
highly relevant problem sets, and the feeling is if I could
do the problem, I know it. Well you know it at that time
and you might be using a book or your notes to
solve the problem. On the test however, or
in a class participation or discussion, you have to have
it in your brain accessible on demand, and you want
to speak in a fluent way or have the capacity to solve a
problem with speed and accuracy under stressful conditions. So one thing about learning your
notes is being able to repeat, write the data in your notes
before doing problem sets, and then once you’ve
done a number of problems for your homework, perhaps
you want to take one of the those problems and see if
you could do it without looking. So that every time you’re
reviewing your notes or the problem sets,
you’re probably reviewing for the test you’re helping,
you’re giving yourself an aid to memory and retention, and
you’re increasing your capacity to integrate information
from one lecture to another lecture
to another lecture. And it is that integration
that helps you when you have to apply all the
information on a test, especially when you really
have to have formulas under your command, if
not totally memorized, they need to be accessed easily. Another thing you can do is
see if you can just note down those formulas from memory
just once or twice a week, just to enhance your memory. You may be a great listener and
learn lots during that lecture. You’re connecting the ideas,
you can remember some details and examples, but then again you
might not be the best listener in the world. And if you’re a visual learner,
you find that you learn best from reading, from looking
at pictures and diagrams, or even from watching
the speaker, then you need especially
to preview the slides, the readings, maybe the table
of contents of a chapter, maybe the summaries
and the abstracts, just to get your
frame of reference so that you might
visualize or use some images when you’re then
hearing a lecture and trying to record the notes. So if you have a skill that
puts you at a disadvantage, your visual skills
are very important, but they may put you in a
disadvantage in a lecture, you want to bring those
strengths to bear before, during, and after the lecture. Many students just
agonize when they have to take noteworthy
notes, useful notes, relevant notes when
they’re reading. This becomes especially acute if you’re doing a complicated
research paper, a long paper, a paper about which
you don’t know too much, you become overwhelmed
with information. In order to take good
notes while you’re reading, it is essential to use some of
the aids that we talked about in terms of reading and other
test taking procedures, you want to raise questions. Why are you reading and what
are you taking notes about? Do you need the
big idea concept? Do you need classic
examples or quotes that relate to the lecture? Are you just needing
an overview of the style, the characterization that’s
portrayed in this reading? So you need to decide what it
is you need to take notes on. If you don’t, if you
just had a general topic, what happens is you
become totally overwhelmed because you’re not specifying
what you need from the reading and you may be taking
copious notes to no avail. You may be rewriting everything. So if you’re taking notes,
you want to read a section, visualize it, say it to
yourself, and then write the notes in your
words and check back. It may be that you just
need to refer back, then you just
put pages down. With so many people using
tablets and readers, an important thing about
highlighting is very important. What you want to do if
you’re going to highlight is read the section
that you’re going to highlight, again,
say it in your own words, and then highlight it. You don’t just want to
say, oh that’s important. Because the thing to remember
is well that was important, that was important,
that was important, but you might not remember what
it said that was important. Another part of taking notes is
the capacity to organize them and to have them accessible. So when working with doctoral
students, masters level students who are writing very complicated
papers or doing research, they do file after file,
they can’t find it. It’s not dated. It’s not classified. So the best thing to do
when you’re taking notes for a paper is set up
your note taking system, even if you’re just putting
the date in front of it. The date and the topic that
becomes your major folder. You might want to use Dropbox. Whatever it is to get you able to access the material
easily and not lose focus. Another thing that helps people
take notes is there are times when readings are
quite complicated and they don’t really show up
very well on a computer screen. So for some people,
it’s necessary to print the notes
out, the reading out so that when you take
notes you might be able to just circle a section and say
essential, essential example. You may be able to
do some visual things to help you remember and
access it more easily. So we want to think about what
exactly do you do when you want to prepare for a lecture,
when you’re in the lecture, and after the lecture. So we’re going to look at three
things, three areas or times that you would attend
to lecture. In addition, we’re going to be
looking at what are some steps to help you process
the information and retain it and then use it. So before the lecture
we’re talking about making up some questions, we’re
thinking about looking at the syllabus, looking
at the table of contents, looking at previous lectures
to see what kind of questions or trends you were talking
about, and also looking at the kinds of slides you
want to prepare specifically. For a warm up, a great thing
to do before going to the, the next lecture is
to look at what was done in the previous lecture
and ask questions about how does this lecture
compare to the next one. Are we increasing the
detail that we’re looking at or are we going on
to a new topic? You want to get in early,
perhaps have a healthy drink or snack just to rev you up,
and perhaps you have to take, just relax, take a deep
breath, that three minutes just to prepare yourself, relax, get
a positive image of yourself as a good listener
or productive student, then again you’re
more ready to listen. While you’re listening, do everything you can
not to distract yourself. Put that phone away. Turn it off. Do not text. It’s so easy to do,
but it’s so distracting. And if you’re in a course where
the material is so difficult, that’s especially necessary. So you want to get close
to the speaker if you can, at least position yourself where other people aren’t
talking or distracting you. You want to be able to
come in with some questions or key points that
you really need to know. You might have a note, a notebook where you’re
having questions on the side or you may bring sticky notes
if you’re doing multiple slides, then you might be able
to put sticky notes. Many of the slides
that I look at, especially in the science
courses, are extremely dense. You’re getting 30 or 40 slides of very complicated
new material. You have no framework. In those courses, it’s
especially important to look at the slides before,
then it may be that for some slides you need to
print the complicated slide out and as the professor is talking,
perhaps look at one part of the slide at a time so that
you can have increased focus. And of course, many students
really enjoy color coding some of the slides so they see
the red is the main idea and the green are examples. You’re again, as in reading,
it’s really important to be listening to the
structure of language. How does the professor
or the instructor or the lecturer break
up the lecture? Are they talking about pro/con? Are they saying on the one
hand, on the other hand? Are they doing contradictions? Are they saying
‘however’, ‘although’? So you want to as you would
in reading use catch phrases and single words to again
get your selective attention honed in and to give
you a framework of what is the structure
of this lecture? Are we dealing
with sequences? Are we dealing with
cause and effect? Are we causing the main ideas and increasingly difficult
details and examples? And for some people who
are great note takers or want to cut down on the
time, they may decide that to have a little legend
of abbreviations or key ways of bulleting
their information. So how you take notes
becomes more acute in some courses
than the other. Now for some people with slow
processing or poor handwriting or poor auditory skills,
there are certain aids. One of the aids that many
students feel is quite useful is a Livescribe. It’s a pen that records and
has a particular type of pad and paper that’s coded so that
when you’re writing the notes, the lecture is being recorded. You then stop when you want. You can connect the
pen to the computer. You will get a print out
of the notes and then if on the paper you point
at a certain section, you will automatically hear
that section read back to you. So this aid costs I think
under a $100. It can be shared
by people sometime, but I think for some
students it’s a very worthwhile investment. Many of the word processing
programs have note taking parts to it and I think for
whatever software you use, it’s worth investigating,
perhaps using it in the easiest course
just to get used to it, and then deciding what
kind of aid is best. In the medical schools or
other professional schools, students are sometimes
allowed to opt out of lecture and the lectures are videotaped,
and students who are slow or distracted or just don’t
like sitting with a group of people are using these
videotaped lectures. One of the things that
happens when you do this is that you may feel that you
just want to get through them. Okay, get them over. And it feels good, because
I did five at a time or I did five very quickly. The problem is is that, especially if you’re
just listening to them and not doing any learning
activities while the lecture is going on, you don’t learn. You get through them. You go over the notes, but
you haven’t learned enough. So the key to doing that kind
of learning whether it’s online or just coming to a videotaped
lecture, what you want to do is stop after
each major idea, see if you can visualize it,
and write it in your own words, draw a picture, identify
some critical details, and then go on. And take breaks
every 20 minutes, because if you’re
doing it on your own, the chances that you get
distracted, don’t pay attention, and fritter away
the time is high. And what happens is
you put the time in, but it hasn’t
been productive. So the emphasis whether
you’re listening in lecture or watching a videotaped lecture
is to put learning activities, interaction, action-oriented
things, writing, visualizing, talking to yourself, so that
you are helping your memory and setting the stage
so that when you leave that lecture you can remember
it and then integrate it on the next go around. And then after the lecture what
you want to do is make sure that within 24 to
48 hours you spend at least 20 minutes doing
a review of the lecture. Again, you can use a blank
page type of exercise where you’re just
writing things down. You can cover up the lecture
and talk it to yourself. You can organize it
as you go through it. You can identify the definitions
and the specific pieces of information, but you’ve
got to do something active. Because if you have the
big picture and you look at that lecture, just read
and reread, it’s like you know like throwing, having
flypaper out, you know whatever hits
the flypaper that sets. But unless you do
something action-oriented, it doesn’t work. It may be that you need to
find somebody to study with. It may be that you need to
purchase notes or share notes with somebody else, but you’ve
got to do periodic review. The best ritual for your hardest
course, where your grade’s on the line, is to at least have
20 minutes after each lecture and then once a week
look at all the lectures so that you’ve recycled
and integrated. When we were talking about
reading, we talked about SQ4R as a tried and true strategy
for reading, and the same types of procedures that you use
for reading for ensuring that you’re processing
information is to use the same kinds
of things in listening. And we tried to use SQ4R
for reading, listening, test preparation,
even paper writing. You have one set of steps,
which can be applied and adapted to the various study skills. This gives you great
confidence, greater practice, and a greater chance that you’re
going to remember, integrate, and use the information. So at the first step,
you’re surveying. So that means you’re surveying
before, you’re looking at all the slides, you’re
looking at the reading. The next step would
be questioning. Set up some critical questions that you think are
answered before and then during
the lecture. And the next thing is when
you’re listening, you’re focused on answering questions,
finding the definitions, the key terms, the examples. How does this example
illustrate the main idea? What examples are not examples? When you’re doing this during
your listening, you then go on and you write answers
to questions or you make up questions. So after every lecture, one way
of reviewing the material is to write questions that are
similar to the questions that might be on an exam. Now you might not be able
to do this at the beginning when you haven’t had a course or when the professor has
not provided sample questions. But you can design a question
and ask a GSI or a professor if this question is
similar to the kind of questions that will be asked. That kind of process gets you
to practice the kind of detail that you might not see if you
were just rereading your notes. So when you make up a multiple
choice question, you might say which one of these things
is true and find the one thing in your lecture that’s
the non-example. So this idea of asking
and answering questions and then reciting the
answers to yourself and then writing the chart of
information is very important. Once you decide what
the critical ideas are, what are the critical formulas
are, if you’re taking a test on a blue book, your memory
is faulty, you get stressed, you can’t remember, the
minute you get the blue book in the inside of the cover
you write down the key points so it’s always there
for you and you don’t have to figure out
what’s going on. And then you can sort of
outline what you think is the critical aspects. Mind mapping is something that
many people used in junior high and high school and then forget
about at the college level. And the idea of mind mapping
is to create visuals of ideas. Frequently it was used
for brainstorming. So you would just sort of
have an information dump about all the ideas and then
maybe put them in sequence or organize them in
certain categories. But the idea of drawing
diagrams and making charts and mapping out the sequence of
information is very critical at the college level when
you have a mass of information that can be so overwhelming that
if you start charting it out, whether it’s Greek
mythodology, humanities, or a science process, once
you do the conversion of words to pictures you’re using a
different side of the brain and you’re able to
really remember it. And for some people
who are visual learners, it becomes especially
important. Some people enjoy the
doodling or the writing. The kind of paper
they use is important. Sometimes they want to put
white paper or old newspaper on, with masking tape on walls
and really draw something big. Because if you’re into
a very detail organism, you might want that opportunity. Other people might
use color pencils. Other people really want
to just focus on details, because if they don’t see that
detail and its relationship to the whole, it’s very hard to
evoke the information on a test. And when they talk about
one picture being worth a 1,000 words in these kinds of
situations that’s where it is. So there’s something called
the blank page exercise. It doesn’t want to be
a blank mind exercise. It wants to be a blank
page exercise, that is, you take that blank piece
of paper and you write out an outline, definitions, a drawing from memory,
and then go back. You can do this before
you review your notes, you can do this after
you review your notes, and you can do this
prior to test taking. What it does is ensure you
or show you what you know or don’t know, and where
you have to fill in the gaps. Working with residents
who, medical residents who have a mass of information, sometimes they are
listening lectures, maybe they make a chart of
it, maybe they copy a chart, and what happens is by
making the chart it feels like you’ve done
something really great. You see the whole, maybe
you’ve color coded it. It’s neatly written. The problem is is if you say, a
day later, turn the chart over and write it from memory,
there’s a lot of slippage. It’s amazing. So you might have your written
notes and use a whiteboard to then write out what
you think you remember. Go back, identify what you
didn’t learn, turn it over, visualize it, say it
yourself a couple times, take a different color pen, and
then fill in the information on the whiteboard again. So this allows you
to see how you build up your knowledge base. So think about when you’re
learning to, an onion, but you’re learning
from the core out. Learning the main ideas of what
you remembered, adding a little, adding a little,
adding a little. So you only do this with the
most detailed, critical courses. You spend the time,
but that’s different, this is active learning,
not just going over and over your notes. You want to use these
listening skills in discussions and meetings, because
again if you’re meeting on a regular basis
or just before a test, you don’t want
to waste your time. So if you have a group, have
people design a question after each lecture, and
everybody brings a question in, and then you’re focused
on what you think are the critical aspects and it’s
tied, your note taking is tied to the test taking
or the paper writing. The same kind of thing
goes with listening skills when you’re working with
counselors and advisors. What you’d want to do is
restate what they said. You want to write it down
and may be email a summary to them so you have it. Because you want to make
sure you have clear accurate directions and explanations. So here’s where you’re listening and speaking skills can hugely
impact the amount of learning and the amount of time you
save when you go to study. So going to office hours and
just showing people your notes, asking what the questions might
look like, and then taking that information
to review your notes and make practice test questions
has a direct relationship to your, to your ability
to get an extra point or two or three on a test. So in summary, students have
greater control than they think about during lectures by
preparing, really focusing, and then reviewing their notes. Also you can improve by focusing
on one course at a time. So if you’re having trouble in
a course and that’s the place where you want to get an
extra few points on the test or you need a couple of points. One, is always going
to office hours. Two, if you’ve got some
challenges, touching base with Services for
Students with Disabilities. If you’re feeling tension
and stress and you’re crying or falling apart, or even if you want some traditional
stress managing strategies as finals come,
you might want to go, contact CAPS or Health Service. And if you, your notes
are getting out of hand and you’re writing papers,
then you might want to go to the Sweetland
Writing Center. So we want to integrate whether
it’s listening or reading all with different services that are
provided here at the University. And so identify one goal, do you need to rewrite
some just definitions? Do you need to stop rewriting
your notes in an aimless way? And what are the three
things that you can do to enhance your listening? Thank you very much. I have one other thing to say. I have a book called “A Study
Tip A Day Gets You an A”, and these are study tips written
in a 140 characters or less. If you have an iPhone,
you can go to the App store and it’s a free download. So this is my gift
to the community and I appreciate
you being here. Thank you very much.

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